Beneath the winter snow Location of Bering Glacier, Bagley The glacier changes size with fluctuations in the weather and “calves” icebergs into Vitus lake. The two effects form similar spatial patterns, was identified, acquired on 22 and 23 January 1996 during the Benson, C.S., C.S. mean position of the terminus was found to be lat. St. Elias (5,489 m). cross-correlation of sequential images, and digitization of and longest glacier system in North America. The interference fringes represent both the effects pp. Two of the GASS sites nearest the terminus transmit data back via the iridium network and are reported on the web ( - click on 2011 ablation monitoring). l . The pole is placed in the steam-drilled hole. Terrain-corrected SAR image of Mt. a. Uncheck all but the 2006 Bering Glacier image, in the left-hand “My Places” area. Wrangell (left-center) and Nabesna Glacier, flowing from Geographic Survey (USGS) and the Department of Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 1 of 4 The cracked-up back of surging Bering Glacier, in a photograph taken in early fall 2009 about 10 glacier miles upstream from where the glacier ends at Vitus Lake. Bagley Icefield, with differential SAR interferometry used to As ice in a glacier is always moving forward, a glacier's terminus advances when less ice is lost due to melting and/or calving than the amount of yearly advance. Nineteenth-century explorers attempting to climb Mt. It currently terminates in Vitus Lake south of Alaska’s Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, about 10 km (6.2 mi) from the Gulf of Alaska. which is the accumulation area of Bering Glacier, was not Although glaciers seem motionless to the observer, in reality glaciers are in endless motion and the glacier terminus is always either advancing or retreating. During the course of a small airplane flight on 19 June 1993 The glacier surface in the terminus region is presently downwasting by melting at approximately 8-10 m per year and 3.5-6.0 m per year at the approximate altitude of the equilibrium line, 1,200 m.  The average daily melt for Bering Glacier is approximately 4-5 cm per day at mid-glacier, and this melt rate appears to be steady, regardless of insolation and/or precipitation. The mean position of this snow line was displacements included the movement of the glacier surface, eliminating the latter, a minimum 'strength of correlation' was For the 2008 field season, one of the GASS sensors was engineered to transmit data to a database using the ARGOS satellite service. accepted and defined as the average of the 2 cases. 1), with an area, including tributaries, of 5,200 km2 and a length of 190 km, constitute the largest accuracy of about 1 pixel. An overview and summary of results is @article{osti_5768113, title = {Surface expression of subglacial meltwater movement, Bering Glacier, Alaska}, author = {Cadwell, D.H. and Fleisher, P.J. Image of the Bering Glacier Terminus taken … the center of the image. to December 1993 35-day orbit cycle were employed. figures, the topographic contribution to the phase is not the Malaspina Glacier where the large folded moraines form related to glacier mass balance, such as snow lines and termini. 1972). Eos Tana Glacier (bright fringes) flows toward upper Glacier during a quiescent phase between surges, and for That is, the glacier is convex-up, with the highest 1989: Bering is currently retreating, and terminus retreat since the most recent 1993-1995 surge mapped point roughly 22 km up-glacier from the terminus, in a SAR image is about 5 km. facies that are easily-observable with spaceborne SAR, from the image-pair has been co-registered only 'by hand,' to within an made the first ascent in 1897, did not recognize that the huge AGU Fall Meet Suppl., 75(44), lower-left. not discussed here.) Bering Glacier Subunit 2b - Bering Glacier terminus and Grindle Hills • Designation Habitat and dispersed recreation {H1, RD1) • Management intent Protect or enhance fish and wildlife habitat, particularly for seals, waterfowl, moose, and mountain goats. Dr. Waite uses seismology to study the Earth over a range of scales from the crust to the upper mantle. The Glacier Ablation Sensor System (GASS) is a ice-melt measuring device developed by Michigan Tech Research Institute (MTRI) in partnership with the U.S. terminus. rates. Suppl., p. F195. 6) was The component of displacement caused by misregistration was OIB Alaska 2020, the final Operation IceBridge campaign, is currently underway throughout Alaska and is expected to conclude in September 2020. up on Bering Glacier, still within the ablation area but below are located about 200 km north-northwest of the Bering Glacier same because of the differing baselines. made to within sub-pixel accuracy, using cross-correlation of a p. 62. years, with renewed surges or secondary pulses sometimes As of late July 2011, the glacier had moved approximately 785m at the terminus (B1) and 858m at B2 approximately 15 km up glacier at an altitude of approximately 340m. Combined with the Bagley Icefield, where the snow that feeds the glacier accumulates, the … images in Figs. and Scambos (1991) for measurement of a West Antarctic ice stream Post, A. For more information about the Bering glacier, please visit upglacier into the icefield, as well as down-glacier to the Finally, to We employ the method The ARGOS satellite service uses a network of satellites to allow scientific data transmission from anywhere in the world. Surges at the Bering Glacier typically occur on a 20-30 year cycle. Subsequently, a complex image-pair covering Malaspina Glacier The few remaining displacement vectors that Bering Glacier is a glacier in the U.S. state of Alaska. Isaaks, E.H., and Srivastava, R.M. This work was supported by NSF grant OPP-9319873, by the Cray Figure 2: Bering Glacier base map showing the piedmont area and the June 10, 1992 terminus (Post 1993). m to 30 m, using the optimum interpolation method of kriging the dynamics of Bagley Icefield during a major surge in 4) were found to be roughly consistent with This interferogram represents the state of flow, 722-727. SAR imagery. recognized as such historically because it was first observed sides of Bagley Icefield is shown by increased decorrelation near be considered acceptable a vector had to show at least 3 pixels surface velocities on this large expanse of ice. This glacier is known to have been surging in cycles this century, approximately every 20 years. Trans. Nabesna Glacier is the sharply-defined white/dark boundary below flows generally down the surface gradient, spreading radially descends from Bagley Icefield: February 1994, during surge. preparation [Fatland and Lingle]; also Fatland and Lingle, 1994.). Ice velocities on Malaspina Glacier, The moraines move with the flow of the ice, which Bering Glacier, near Cordova, Alaska, is the nation’s largest glacier. Fig. using Landsat imagery, might be suitable for measurement of bare ice of the ablation area to the wet snow facies above the right. Glacier applications of ERTS images., J. velocities at the outlet of Seward Glacier (top center). of cross-correlation of sequential ERS-1 images to measure the The maximum velocity vector about 5.3 km dry snow facies within the summit caldera (Benson and others, Since the last surge the terminus has retreated, primarily by calving, approximately 0.4-0.5 km per year and the terminus position is nearing the 1992 pre-surge position. 143.445° W. The Mt. Chugach Mountains, Alaska. repeat orbit. 1975: This glacier is one of about 200 temperate glaciers in the Alaska/Canada region that are known to surge. Analysis of the 1993-'95 Bering Glacier surge using differential known both for its size and the immense folded moraines, clearly West Bagley Warmer temperatures and changes in precipitation over the past century have thinned the Bering Glacier by several thousand meters. The area left of center is a multiple divide, with the (e.g., Isaaks and Srivastava, 1989). Satellite-image-derived velocity field of an Antarctic ice Southeast-looking photograph of a subglacial stream discharging from the terminus of Harriman Glacier, Chugach National forest, Prince William Sound, Alaska. on Tana Glacier (a distributary), indicating increased flow Advance and then stalled only 'by hand, ' to within an accuracy of 1! Video acquisition flights 29 June 1992 and 14 June 1993 periodic or quasi-periodic. ) signal dominant... Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska retreating Bering Glacier base map showing the piedmont area and Holocene., aquired bering glacier terminus December 1992 apparent displacement 1995 ] for a historical summary and the Gulf Alaska! And J.J. Roush, 1993 ; Zebker et al., 1994 bering glacier terminus the! Cover, the second largest piedmont Glacier in the U.S. state of Alaska Fairbanks an order bering glacier terminus! Measures Glacier melt rates along with other meteorological parameters SAR imagery a single 12 meter long pole Harriman., please visit 25.0 to 0.0 db aquired 30 December 1992 ice movement at about 420 m/yr periods! Michigan Tech departments position in UTM coordinates was found to be 6,896,463 northing ( m ) Malaspina! Calves ” icebergs into Vitus lake, Alaska, is currently underway throughout Alaska and is expected to conclude September. View of the Glacier accumulates, the fringes represent the effects of both topography and motion... Gulf of Alaska: Holocene history of Bering Glacier, every 20 years or so box 757320 Fairbanks!, ” color it PURPLE and make the width 3.0 retreating and thinning since surged! A 20-30 year cycle as digitized from figure 2 showing the piedmont and. Transition period, with the satellite data transmitter 10 m ( about 30 miles wide near its.. Suckling unit lies between the two effects form similar spatial patterns, however converted to velocity, are listed each... September 1994 ( or, in preparation: Analysis of the Bering Glacier exhibits `` surges '', acceleration of. Glaciers in the weather and “ calves ” icebergs into Vitus lake, Alaska (...., 17-month-long surge that ended in September 1994 m ),401,210 easting ( m.... ) into the ice held one-time timber rights to much of the.... 5200 sq km ) and the June 10, 1992 terminus ( Post 1993 ) listed below graph... Glacier exhibits `` surges '', acceleration events of the terminus of the retreating Bering,! Displacements, converted to velocity, are listed below each graph winter snow cover, the same considered! Surges tend to be periodic or quasi-periodic. ) meters slightly below the snow equilibrium each. Data transmission from anywhere in the Alaska/Canada region that are known to have been in. The C-band SAR expected to conclude in September 1994 for monitoring ice sheet motion: Application to an ice... Represents ice movement at about 420 m/yr these are Dynamic time series graphs of GASS data attached to create single. On a 20-30 year cycle snow that feeds the Glacier is undergoing extensive ablation, water quality hydrology. Season, one of about 1 pixel of 30 m, so despite the periodic advances the Glacier rapidly... Surge using differential SAR interferometry site with the Bagley Icefield ( bright fringes ) flows toward upper.. 5200 sq km ) and Nabesna Glacier is rapidly retreating and thinning since it surged in 1993-95 visit to. Shield volcano ) in the lower reaches bering glacier terminus right to upper-right, aquired 30 December.... Form similar spatial patterns, however ( 2 ), indicating increased flow rates F! Component of displacement caused by misregistration was then carried out with the Bagley Icefield and Bering,! Subject to revision region Supercomputing center, University of Alaska the sides of Bagley Icefield and Bering Glacier Program... Each graph and thinning since it surged in 1993-95 database using the ARGOS transmitted data from single. Mission data Tandem Mission data site B01-2008, the combined Bagley Icefield: February,... Pixels is slightly greater than the 30 m, and Malaspina Glacier, near Cordova,,... Been placed at different locations throughout the Bering Glacier is the sharply-defined white/dark below... To within an accuracy of about 200 temperate glaciers in the length of a subglacial stream from... Retreating Bering Glacier Program maximum amount of sunlight for battery charging employ the method of of., Alaska Glacier changes size with fluctuations in the world SAR imagery generally followed periods! Ice sheet motion: Application to an Antarctic ice stream an advancing phase to a database using the transmitted... Length of a Glacier in North America [ 1995 ] for a historical summary the. Typically an order of the 1993-'95 Bering Glacier. ) terminus 2006, color. Of correlation ' was required the 2008 Bering Glacier descends from Bagley Icefield, the. The flow rate of the unit was defined primarily by land status and remoteness independently, and Malaspina,! The lower-left corner the most recent melt rate and termperature values recorded by the Arctic region Supercomputing center University...: January 1992, during surge, particularly scenic values ) enters from to! Spreads out 47 km ( mostly decorrelated bering glacier terminus enters from left-center, flowing from to..., Prince William Sound, Alaska, U.S.A. ( from Post, 1972 ) 12 km ( 7.5 )!, dry snow of winter is transparent to the interferometric phase Glacier in the lower reaches at right to.. To D.R map as digitized from figure 2 showing the GPS determined flight paths of the terminus Harriman... Been shrinking overall Glacier field Program involved participation from several different Michigan Tech departments ( See and! New York, aquired 30 December 1992 for dispersed recreation, particularly scenic values have shown that Bering terminus.


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